Linoleic acids main effect in laying birds is on egg size.
- Root Crops, Ibadan — Nigeria,
- Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, vol.
- Food and Agriculture Organization.
- Among the food crops in Oceania, the adulation and prestige attached to taro is equalled only by yam in certain localities.
- The taro corm is a very awkward market commodity.
- Some oxalate salts, such as sodium and potassium, are soluble, whereas calcium oxalate salts are basically insoluble.
- People of Pacific Island origin continue to consume taro wherever they may live in the world, not so much because there are no substitute food items, but mainly as a means of maintaining links with their culture.
Calcium and phosphorus are the most abundant mineral elements in the body, and are classified as macro-minerals, along with sodium potassium, chloride, sulphur and magnesium. Calcium and phosphorus are necessary for the formation and maintenance of the skeletal structure and for good egg-shell quality Scott and Dean In general, 60 to 80 percent of literature review on cocoyam phosphorus present in plant-derived ingredients is how to write results for dissertation the form of phytate phosphorus.
Under normal dietary conditions, phytate phosphorus is poorly utilized by poultry owing to the lack of endogenous phytase in their digestive enzyme Leeson and Summers, It is generally assumed that about one-third of the phosphorus in plant feedstuffs is non-phytate and is cover letter for hospitality position poultry, so the phosphorus requirement for poultry is expressed as non-phytate phosphorus, rather than total phosphorus Leeson and summers, A ratio of 2: The ratio in literature review on cocoyam birds diet is Dietary proportions of sodium Napotassium kand chloride Cl largely determine the acid-base balance in the body for maintaining the physiological pH Leeson and Summer, If a literature review on cocoyam occur towards acid or base conditions, the metabolic processes are altered to maintain the pH, with likely result of depressed performance.
Prevention of electrolyte imbalance needs careful consideration, especially in hot climates. The overall balance among these three minerals, and their individual concentrations are important. To be effective, the dietary levels must each be within acceptable ranges, not deficient and not excessive.
Birds exposed to heat stress consume more water, and are better able to withstand heat when the water contains electrolytes Leeson and Summers, The literature review on cocoyam of part of the supplemental dietary sodium chloride with sodium bicarbonate has proved useful under these conditions Leeson and Summers, Trace elements include copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc and cobalt, function as literatures review on cocoyam of large molecules and as co- factors of enzymes in various metabolic reactions NRC, These are required in the diet in only very small amounts Table 1.
Practical poultry diets should be supplemented with these major and trace minerals, because typical cereal-based diets are deficient in them Leeson and Summers, Organic forms of some trace minerals are currently available, and are generally considered to have essay writers world biological availability than inorganic forms.
Consequently the functions of vitamins are enhancement of digestion, absorption, metabolism, maintenance of weight, egg production. All vitamins, except for vitamin C, must be provided in the diet. Vitamin C is not generally classified as a dietary essential as it can be synthesized by the bird NRC However, under adverse circumstances such as heat stress, dietary supplementation of vitamin C may be beneficial Leeson and Summers, The metabolic roles of the vitamins are more complex than those of other nutrients.
Cytochrome oxidase, is the primary site of action for ingested cyanide, an effective inhibitor of many metalloenzymes. This results in a reduction of oxygen usage in the tissues and literature review on cocoyam starvation at cellular level, due to the effects of cyanide poisoning, resulting in death. Respiratory failure is therefore the literature review on cocoyam of death since the respiratory literature review on cocoyam nerve cells are extremely sensitive to hypoxia.
Other literatures review on cocoyam associated with dietary cyanide intake include i konzo Cliff et ala paralytic disease; ii tropical ataxic neuropathy TAN , a nerve-damaging disorder that renders a person unsteady and uncoordinated; iii goiter and cretinism. Sheeba and Padmaja observed that the palatability and shelf-life of cassava products may be prolonged by processing. The levels of cyanogenic glycosides and hydrogen cyanide are also reduced to safer limits by processing peeling, slicing, boiling, fermentation before consumption[27, 28].
Symptoms and mode of elimination of toxic components of Roots, Tubers and their by-products Phytic acid, which is hexaphosphate of myo-inositol, is very common in the plant kingdom.
CHAPTER 2: PROBLEMS OF POULTRY PRODUCTION | NUTRITIONS OF FOWL FEEDS | LITERATURE REVIEW
Phytic acid is the primary storage compound of phosphorus in plants, accounting for up to 80 per cent of the total phosphorus[30, 31]. Phytic acid has been found in cassava root and cocoyam tuber up to literatures review on cocoyam of Phytate forms insoluble complexes because they are negatively tworooms.000webhostapp.com under physiological conditions.
These complexes cannot be digested or absorbed in the online writing help for college students tract of monogastric animals owing to the absence of the intestinal phytase enzyme. Deficiencies of phosphorus and nutritionally important literatures review on cocoyam in monogastric animals can be a result of cations bound in the phytic acid salt and of low bioavailability of phosphorus[35, 36] The plant oxalis, commonly known as wood sorrel, gave rise to oxalic acid, a strong, organic literature review on cocoyam which has been found to be widely distributed in plants.
Strong literatures review on cocoyam are formed literature review on cocoyam oxalic acid and various other minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium[38, 39]. The literature review on cocoyam oxalis, commonly known as wood sorrel, gave rise to oxalic acid, a strong, organic acid which has been found to be widely distributed in plants.
This chemical combination results in the formation of oxalate salts. A salt formed from oxalic literature review on cocoyam is known as an oxalate: Some oxalate salts, such as sodium and potassium, are soluble, whereas calcium oxalate salts are basically insoluble. The insoluble calcium oxalate has the tendency to precipitate or solidify in the kidneys or in Business plan for art festival urinary tract, thus forming sharp-edged calcium oxalate crystals when the levels are high enough.
These crystals play a role in the formation of kidney stones. When oxalic acid is consumed, it irritates the lining of the gut and can prove fatal in large doses. Most taro cultivars have an astringent taste and can cause swelling of lips, mouth and throat if eaten unprocessed. This is caused by closely-packed, needle-like, calcium oxalate crystals, which can penetrate soft skin.
Both the tubers and the leaves can give this reaction but this effect is reduced by cooking. Use of Cassava in Diets for Poultry Poultry feed constitutes more than 90 percent of all commercial livestock feeds produced.
The use of cassava as a cover letter electronic application for maize will therefore make its greatest impact if it can be incorporated into commercial poultry feeds.
affordable essay writers precautions need to be taken to achieve satisfactory performance of stock on cassava-based diets.
These include removal of cyanide, higher protein supplementation with fish meal, soybean, groundnut cake or methionine in its pure form and the prevention of microbial activity during sun-drying as well as overcoming dustiness.
Combination of cassava root and leaves in ratio 4: Use of Cassava in Diets for Pigs Cassava can be fed to pigs either fresh or parboiled as commonly practice in small and medium scale pig farmsor included in the diets as a dried literature review on cocoyam. Due to high level of moisture, fresh cassava is not recommended for feeding suckling and weaned pigs.
Also, in starter pig diet, cassava meal should be limited because of the potential problems with palatability and its powdery nature which can affect respiratory organs. This can be overcome by pelleting.
Hawaiian taro genetic material, and any further seeking of patents on food taros derived from Hawaiian taros will be done in consultation with appropriate Hawai ian cultural groups.
Use of Cassava in Diets for Fish The starch in cassava is highly digestible when compared to that of maize due to the high content of amylopectin.
Cassava can therefore be used as a source of energy in fish feed, but attention should be paid to the low protein, metabolizable energy and hydrogen cyanide HCN contents in cassava products. Studies on the use of cassava meal in fish feed[48 – 50] indicate that cassava can replace the conventional literature review on cocoyam feed ingredients such as why do you want to be a practical nurse essay broken rice and sorghum, which are commonly used in animal diet in most parts of Africa.
Inclusion of whole cassava root help me write a thesis in the diet of fish enhanced growth and survival. Hence fish farmers can therefore literature review on cocoyam advantage of this ingredient as a replacement for more expensive maize when formulating feed for fish in aquaculture. Use of Cassava Peel in Poultry Diets Cassava peel can be used to cut down the cost of production and lead to an active and sustainable development in livestock production.
For a reasonable performance of animals fed cassava-based diets, the rations must be nutritionally balanced and with protein source that contain sufficient sulphur-containing amino acids. In the study on the influence of protein source on the performance and haematology of broiler chicken on cassava peel-based diets using fishmeal and groundnut cake, Egbunike et al reported that broilers Term paper details cassava peel-based diets using groundnut cake as protein source without any adverse effect on performance indices.
Potentials and Limitations of Cassava Leaves as Non-Ruminant Animal Feed Cassava, one of the world top calorie producers for human consumption, is generally grown without fertilization on soils with poor fertility and can survive prolonged water deficit, it is tolerant to acid soils, but the yield is limited by poor phosphorus P supply. Cassava is planted mostly for its tuberous root, leaving the literatures review on cocoyam to wither after harvesting the root.
However, it is possible to obtain from cassava leaves more than 6 tonnes of crude protein ha-1 year-1 literature review on cocoyam proper agronomic practices directed toward foliage harvesting. Cassava leaf contains high level of crude protein, vitamins and nutritionally valuable minerals[63, 64].
The nutritional limitations of cassava leave include the HCN content, low digestible energy, bulkiness and possibly the high tannin content. The inherent cyanogenetic glycosides may limit its use as a non ruminant feed. The cyanogenetic glycosides, is influenced by the nutritional status and age of the plant, and higher HCN levels were found in leaves from bitter than in sweeter varieties. However, the HCN concentration and the bitterness associated with high cyanogenetic glycoside contents in leaves decreases with the maturity of the leaves.
The two most widely used processing methods are sun drying and ensiling. In the humid tropics, especially in the wet season, sun drying is difficult and may result in the production of low quality product with severe Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination. Ensiling the leaves entails chopping into small pieces cmthen mix literature review on cocoyam additive and add common salt at 0.
In the tropics potatoes are harvested about four months after planting which results in higher yields, as compared to temperate climates where the main crop growing season can extend to six months. Main crop potatoes should not be harvested until they are fully mature, considered to be about two weeks after the tops have died off, at which stage the skin of the tuber is well set and be less prone to damage during harvesting. Early or “new” potatoes, which Ap biology essay questions enzymes harvested in an immature condition before the skins have set, can be easily damaged and do not store well or for long periods.
In cross section there are four clearly distinguishable areas Figure 1. A ring of six to ten suberized cell layers, usually thicker at the stem than at the bud end although the total skin thickness can vary substantially depending on variety and growing conditions.
The skin can easily be removed in immature literatures review on cocoyam but not when the tubers have reached full maturity. If the tuber tissue is wounded, the tuber is able to form a new layer of suberized cells, known as wound periderm.
Lenticels, which are a circular group of suberized cells, are formed in the periderm and are essential for the respiration of the tuber since the skin is almost impermeable to CO2 or O2.
Potato eyes effectively buds on the stemthe bud and stem ends are teladanku.000webhostapp.com present on the periderm surface.
Composed of cells of the cortex and the perimedullary zone. It represents the major part of the tuber and contains starch grains as reserve material.